Steam (or Thermal) Coal
Steam coal is a coal grade between bituminous coal and anthracite coal, and was once widely used as a fuel for steam locomotives. Smallsteam coalnuggets were also used as a fuel for domestic water heating and is now commonly used by utility companies to generate electricity.
Steam coal is primarily used as a solid fuel to produce electricity and heat through combustion. China is the world's largest coal producer and over two-thirds of China's electricity comes from steam coal. When steam coal is used for electricity generation, it is usually pulverized and then burned in a furnace below a boiler. The heat from the furnace boils the water to convert to steam which turns the turbines to generate electricity. The thermodynamic efficiency of boiling water to turn the turbines has improved over time. Older coal power plants are significantly less efficient than modern coal power plants and produce higher levels of waste heat, i.e. heat that does not directly effect the boiling of water. Modern steam turbines with advanced thermodynamic features have reached about 35% thermodynamic efficiency for the entire process.
Increasing the combustion temperature can boost this thermodynamic efficiency even further. At least 40% of the world's electricity comes from steam coal and almost one-half of the United States' electricity comes from steam coal. Advances in steam turbine technology including running a boiler at extremely high temperatures and pressures will reach thermodynamic efficiencies of over 45% thus reducing thermodynamic waste.
Although many countries produce steam coal for generating electricity including the US, China, Australia and many others, we focus on Indonesia with its primary steam coal producing areas in Kalimantan, Indonesia as a reliable and trusted source for our steam coal trading platform.
Steam Coal Specifications
We focus on four main grades ofsteam coal for trading betweensteam coalproducers in Indonesia and power generating utility companies in Asia.
|Steam Coal (or Thermal Coal) Specifications||
|Parameter||Low Calorific||Mid-Calorific||Upper-Middle Calorific||High Calorific|
|KCal / kg||5,500-5,300||5,800-5,600||6,300-6,100||6,700-6,500|
|Inherent Moisture (%)||10-12||10-12||6-8||3-4|
|Ash Content (%)||1-3||5-12||8-10||14-16|
|Volatile Matter (%)||37-43||37-43||38-40||34-50|
|Fixed Carbon (%)||36-38||40-43||37-49||24-26|
|Total Sulphur (%)||0.1-0.3||0.8-1.0||0.6-0.9||1.0-1.2|
|Total Moisture (%)||28-30||15-20||10-12||7-10|
|Size (mm)||25-50||Less than 50||Less than 50||Less than 50|
|Daily Production (MT)||50,000||30,000||30,000||30,000|
|Price (USD per MT)|
The above steam coal specifications and steam coal prices are correct at time of publication, are for illustrative purposes only and are therefore legally non-binding. Actual steam coal specifications and steam coal pricing will be confirmed during the sales contract stage.